SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL of the Hungarian Society of Cardiology

Cancer-associated venous thromboembolism – treatment and prevention

█ Review

DOI: 10.26430/CHUNGARICA.2023.53.2.129

Árokszállási Anita1 , Horváth Laura2
1Debreceni Egyetem Klinikai Központ, Onkológiai Klinika, Debrecen
2Semmelweis Egyetem, Belgyógyászati és Hematológiai Klinika, Budapest
Levelezési cím:
Dr. Árokszállási Anita, e-mail:


Venous thromboembolism is the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer. The incidence of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism has been increasing over time and this tendency is expected to continue also in the future. The occurrence of venous thrombosis can have several consequences on patients with malignancy: elevated morbidity and mortality, the interruption of certain anti-cancer agents and deterioration of the oncological outcome. To prevent and treat cancer-associated venous thromboembolism, low molecular weight heparins have been approved by both medicine authorities and guidelines. Oral direct factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban) were extensively studied in clinical trials on primary prevention and therapy of venous thrombosis in oncological patients. However, direct factor Xa inhibitors are now approved only for the treatment and secondary prevention of cancer-associated thrombosis. No randomized controlled trial is available on dabigatran versus low molecular weight heparins for the management of cancer-associated thrombosis. In our work we aim to provide a summary on the current recommendations about the primary prevention and management of venous thromboembolism related to malignancies.


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