Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the cardiovascular system
Szabó Dóra1,3, Szántó Zalán2, Jüngling Adél3, Polgár Beáta4, Reglődi Dóra3, Cziráki Attila1, Tamás Andrea3*, Sárszegi Zsolt1*
1Pécsi Tudományegyetem Klinikai Központ, 1Szívgyógyászati Klinika,
2Sebészeti Klinika, Pécsi Tudományegyetem Általános Orvostudományi Kar,
3Anatómiai Intézet, MTA-PTE PACAP Munkacsoport,
4Orvosi Mikrobiológiai és Immunntástani Intézet, Pécs
*Mindkét szerző egyenlő mértékben járult hozzá a munkához.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional peptide having neuroprotective, antiapoptotic, antioxidant, cytoprotective and cardioprotective effects. It is well known that PACAP has a direct influence on the cardiovascular system and its effects are mediated by their receptors. Latest studies have successfully shown the presence of PAC1 receptor in cardiomyocyte cell cultures and in heart muscle sections, furthermore, the expression of its mRNA was also detected in mouse heart tissue samples. Moreover, the PAC1 receptor was also identified by our research group in human right atrium with immunohistochemistry. Different in vitro and in vivo functional researches confirmed the protective effects of PACAP against ischemic events. The studies focusing on the oxidative stress-induced damages verified the cardioprotective theory and showed that both endogenous PACAP production and exogenous PACAP treatment leaded to decreased apoptosis of heart muscle cells. The aim of our recent studies was to examine the influence of PACAP on the progression of human cardiovascular diseases. We found significantly higher PACAP levels in heart tissue samples of patients with ischemic heart disorder compared to valvular abnormalities. Remarkable differences were detected between the plasma PACAP levels in ischemic and primary dilated cardiomyopathy. Our study group observed significant negative correlation between the severity of ischemic heart failure and the plasma PACAP levels suggesting that PACAP might play an important role in the pathomechanism and progression of ischemic heart failure and it might be a potential biomarker of cardiac diseases in the future.